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Lattice-Based Authentication Scheme to Prevent Quantum Attack in Public Cloud Environment

Naveed Khan1, Zhang Jianbiao1, Intikhab Ullah2, Muhammad Salman Pathan3, Huhnkuk Lim4,*

1 Faculty of Information Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China
2 Lecture in Computer Science, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, 18050, Pakistan
3 Department of Computer Science, Maynooth University, Maynooth, W23 A3HY, Ireland
4 Department of Computer Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan-si, 31499, Korea

* Corresponding Author: Huhnkuk Lim. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 75(1), 35-49.


Public cloud computing provides a variety of services to consumers via high-speed internet. The consumer can access these services anytime and anywhere on a balanced service cost. Many traditional authentication protocols are proposed to secure public cloud computing. However, the rapid development of high-speed internet and organizations’ race to develop quantum computers is a nightmare for existing authentication schemes. These traditional authentication protocols are based on factorization or discrete logarithm problems. As a result, traditional authentication protocols are vulnerable in the quantum computing era. Therefore, in this article, we have proposed an authentication protocol based on the lattice technique for public cloud computing to resist quantum attacks and prevent all known traditional security attacks. The proposed lattice-based authentication protocol is provably secure under the Real-Or-Random (ROR) model. At the same time, the result obtained during the experiments proved that our protocol is lightweight compared to the existing lattice-based authentication protocols, as listed in the performance analysis section. The comparative analysis shows that the protocol is suitable for practical implementation in a quantum-based environment.


Cite This Article

N. Khan, Z. Jianbiao, I. Ullah, M. S. Pathan and H. Lim, "Lattice-based authentication scheme to prevent quantum attack in public cloud environment," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 75, no.1, pp. 35–49, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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