Home / Journals / CMC / Vol.68, No.2, 2021
Table of Content
  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Low Area PRESENT Cryptography in FPGA Using TRNG-PRNG Key Generation

    T. Kowsalya1, R. Ganesh Babu2, B. D. Parameshachari3, Anand Nayyar4, Raja Majid Mehmood5,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1447-1465, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014606
    Abstract Lightweight Cryptography (LWC) is widely used to provide integrity, secrecy and authentication for the sensitive applications. However, the LWC is vulnerable to various constraints such as high-power consumption, time consumption, and hardware utilization and susceptible to the malicious attackers. In order to overcome this, a lightweight block cipher namely PRESENT architecture is proposed to provide the security against malicious attacks. The True Random Number Generator-Pseudo Random Number Generator (TRNG-PRNG) based key generation is proposed to generate the unpredictable keys, being highly difficult to predict by the hackers. Moreover, the hardware utilization of PRESENT architecture is optimized using the Dual port… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Medical Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on Fractional Calculus

    Hamid A. Jalab1,*, Rabha W. Ibrahim2, Ali M. Hasan3, Faten Khalid Karim4, Ala’a R. Al-Shamasneh1, Dumitru Baleanu5,6,7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1467-1483, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016047
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Fractional Calculus Applied to Complex Engineering Phenomena)
    Abstract The enhancement of medical images is a challenging research task due to the unforeseeable variation in the quality of the captured images. The captured images may present with low contrast and low visibility, which might influence the accuracy of the diagnosis process. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a new fractional integral entropy (FITE) that estimates the unforeseeable probabilities of image pixels, posing as the main contribution of the paper. The proposed model dynamically enhances the image based on the image contents. The main advantage of FITE lies in its capability to enhance the low contrast intensities through pixels’… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Wave Propagation Model in a Human Long Poroelastic Bone under Effect of Magnetic Field and Rotation

    A. M. Abd-Alla1,*, Hanaa Abu-Zinadah2, S. M. Abo-Dahab3, J. Bouslimi4,5, M. Omri6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1485-1504, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.012586
    Abstract This article is aimed at describing the way rotation and magnetic field affect the propagation of waves in an infinite poroelastic cylindrical bone. It offers a solution with an exact closed form. The authors got and examined numerically the general frequency equation for poroelastic bone. Moreover, they calculated the frequencies of poroelastic bone for different values of the magnetic field and rotation. Unlike the results of previous studies, the authors noticed little frequency dispersion in the wet bone. The proposed model will be applicable to wide-range parametric projects of bone mechanical response. Examining the vibration of surface waves in rotating… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Head Attention Graph Network for Few Shot Learning

    Baiyan Zhang1, Hefei Ling1,*, Ping Li1, Qian Wang1, Yuxuan Shi1, Lei Wu1, Runsheng Wang1, Jialie Shen2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1505-1517, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016851
    Abstract The majority of existing graph-network-based few-shot models focus on a node-similarity update mode. The lack of adequate information intensifies the risk of overtraining. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-head Attention Graph Network to excavate discriminative relation and fulfill effective information propagation. For edge update, the node-level attention is used to evaluate the similarities between the two nodes and the distribution-level attention extracts more in-deep global relation. The cooperation between those two parts provides a discriminative and comprehensive expression for edge feature. For node update, we embrace the label-level attention to soften the noise of irrelevant nodes and optimize… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Analyzing Customer Reviews on Social Media via Applying Association Rule

    Nancy Awadallah Awad1,*, Amena Mahmoud2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1519-1530, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016974
    Abstract The rapid growth of the use of social media opens up new challenges and opportunities to analyze various aspects and patterns in communication. In-text mining, several techniques are available such as information clustering, extraction, summarization, classification. In this study, a text mining framework was presented which consists of 4 phases retrieving, processing, indexing, and mine association rule phase. It is applied by using the association rule mining technique to check the associated term with the Huawei P30 Pro phone. Customer reviews are extracted from many websites and Facebook groups, such as re-view.cnet.com, CNET. Facebook and amazon.com technology, where customers from… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    HLR-Net: A Hybrid Lip-Reading Model Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Amany M. Sarhan1, Nada M. Elshennawy1, Dina M. Ibrahim1,2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1531-1549, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016509
    Abstract

    Lip reading is typically regarded as visually interpreting the speaker’s lip movements during the speaking. This is a task of decoding the text from the speaker’s mouth movement. This paper proposes a lip-reading model that helps deaf people and persons with hearing problems to understand a speaker by capturing a video of the speaker and inputting it into the proposed model to obtain the corresponding subtitles. Using deep learning technologies makes it easier for users to extract a large number of different features, which can then be converted to probabilities of letters to obtain accurate results. Recently proposed methods for… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Brain Cancer Tumor Classification from Motion-Corrected MRI Images Using Convolutional Neural Network

    Hanan Abdullah Mengash1,*, Hanan A. Hosni Mahmoud2,3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1551-1563, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016907
    Abstract Detection of brain tumors in MRI images is the first step in brain cancer diagnosis. The accuracy of the diagnosis depends highly on the expertise of radiologists. Therefore, automated diagnosis of brain cancer from MRI is receiving a large amount of attention. Also, MRI tumor detection is usually followed by a biopsy (an invasive procedure), which is a medical procedure for brain tumor classification. It is of high importance to devise automated methods to aid radiologists in brain cancer tumor diagnosis without resorting to invasive procedures. Convolutional neural network (CNN) is deemed to be one of the best machine learning… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    General Steganalysis Method of Compressed Speech Under Different Standards

    Peng Liu1, Songbin Li1,*, Qiandong Yan1, Jingang Wang1, Cheng Zhang2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1565-1574, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016635
    Abstract Analysis-by-synthesis linear predictive coding (AbS-LPC) is widely used in a variety of low-bit-rate speech codecs. Most of the current steganalysis methods for AbS-LPC low-bit-rate compressed speech steganography are specifically designed for a specific coding standard or category of steganography methods, and thus lack generalization capability. In this paper, a general steganalysis method for detecting steganographies in low-bit-rate compressed speech under different standards is proposed. First, the code-element matrices corresponding to different coding standards are concatenated to obtain a synthetic code-element matrix, which will be mapped into an intermediate feature representation by utilizing the pre-trained dictionaries. Then, bidirectional long short-term memory… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Automatic Data Clustering Based Mean Best Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Ayat Alrosan1, Waleed Alomoush2, Mohammed Alswaitti3,*, Khalid Alissa4, Shahnorbanun Sahran5, Sharif Naser Makhadmeh6, Kamal Alieyan7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1575-1593, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015925
    Abstract Fuzzy C-means (FCM) is a clustering method that falls under unsupervised machine learning. The main issues plaguing this clustering algorithm are the number of the unknown clusters within a particular dataset and initialization sensitivity of cluster centres. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is a type of swarm algorithm that strives to improve the members’ solution quality as an iterative process with the utilization of particular kinds of randomness. However, ABC has some weaknesses, such as balancing exploration and exploitation. To improve the exploration process within the ABC algorithm, the mean artificial bee colony (MeanABC) by its modified search equation that depends… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Electronic Healthcare Records to Predict Cancer Patient Survivability

    Ornela Bardhi1,2,*, Begonya Garcia Zapirain1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1595-1613, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015326
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: AI, IoT, Blockchain Assisted Intelligent Solutions to Medical and Healthcare Systems)
    Abstract Breast cancer (BCa) and prostate cancer (PCa) are the two most common types of cancer. Various factors play a role in these cancers, and discovering the most important ones might help patients live longer, better lives. This study aims to determine the variables that most affect patient survivability, and how the use of different machine learning algorithms can assist in such predictions. The AURIA database was used, which contains electronic healthcare records (EHRs) of 20,006 individual patients diagnosed with either breast or prostate cancer in a particular region in Finland. In total, there were 178 features for BCa and 143… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    System Performance of Wireless Sensor Network Using LoRa–Zigbee Hybrid Communication

    Van-Truong Truong1, Anand Nayyar2,*, Showkat Ahmad Lone3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1615-1635, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016922
    Abstract Wireless sensor network (WSN) is considered as the fastest growing technology pattern in recent years because of its applicability in varied domains. Many sensor nodes with different sensing functionalities are deployed in the monitoring area to collect suitable data and transmit it to the gateway. Ensuring communications in heterogeneous WSNs, is a critical issue that needs to be studied. In this research paper, we study the system performance of a heterogeneous WSN using LoRa–Zigbee hybrid communication. Specifically, two Zigbee sensor clusters and two LoRa sensor clusters are used and combined with two Zigbee-to-LoRa converters to communicate in a network managed… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Face Recognition Based on Gabor Feature Extraction Followed by FastICA and LDA

    Masoud Muhammed Hassan1,*, Haval Ismael Hussein1, Adel Sabry Eesa1, Ramadhan J. Mstafa1,2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1637-1659, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016467
    Abstract Over the past few decades, face recognition has become the most effective biometric technique in recognizing people’s identity, as it is widely used in many areas of our daily lives. However, it is a challenging technique since facial images vary in rotations, expressions, and illuminations. To minimize the impact of these challenges, exploiting information from various feature extraction methods is recommended since one of the most critical tasks in face recognition system is the extraction of facial features. Therefore, this paper presents a new approach to face recognition based on the fusion of Gabor-based feature extraction, Fast Independent Component Analysis… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Modeling Bacterial Species: Using Sequence Similarity with Clustering Techniques

    Miguel-Angel Sicilia1,*, Elena García-Barriocanal1, Marçal Mora-Cantallops1, Salvador Sánchez-Alonso1, Lino González2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1661-1672, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015874
    Abstract Existing studies have challenged the current definition of named bacterial species, especially in the case of highly recombinogenic bacteria. This has led to considering the use of computational procedures to examine potential bacterial clusters that are not identified by species naming. This paper describes the use of sequence data obtained from MLST databases as input for a k-means algorithm extended to deal with housekeeping gene sequences as a metric of similarity for the clustering process. An implementation of the k-means algorithm has been developed based on an existing source code implementation, and it has been evaluated against MLST data. Results… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi Sensor-Based Implicit User Identification

    Muhammad Ahmad1,*, Rana Aamir Raza2, Manuel Mazzara3, Salvatore Distefano4, Ali Kashif Bashir5, Adil Khan3, Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz1, Muhammad Umar Aftab1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1673-1692, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016232
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning and Data Science)
    Abstract Smartphones have ubiquitously integrated into our home and work environments, however, users normally rely on explicit but inefficient identification processes in a controlled environment. Therefore, when a device is stolen, a thief can have access to the owner’s personal information and services against the stored passwords. As a result of this potential scenario, this work proposes an automatic legitimate user identification system based on gait biometrics extracted from user walking patterns captured by smartphone sensors. A set of preprocessing schemes are applied to calibrate noisy and invalid samples and augment the gait-induced time and frequency domain features, then further optimized… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Solar Tower Receiver Using Internal Fins

    Hashem Shatnawi1,2,*, Chin Wai Lim2, Firas Basim Ismail3, Abdulrahman Aldossary1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1693-1711, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016741
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Interval Arithmetic with Applications to Physical Phenomena)
    Abstract The receiver is an important element in solar energy plants. The principal receiver’s tubes in power plants are devised to work under extremely severe conditions, including excessive heat fluxes. Half of the tube’s circumference is heated whilst the other half is insulated. This study aims to improve the heat transfer process and reinforce the tubes’ structure by designing a new receiver; by including longitudinal fins of triangular, circular and square shapes. The research is conducted experimentally using Reynolds numbers ranging from 28,000 to 78,000. Triangular fins have demonstrated the best improvement for heat transfer. For Reynolds number value near 43,000… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Estimating Age in Short Utterances Based on Multi-Class Classification Approach

    Ameer A. Badr1,2,*, Alia K. Abdul-Hassan2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1713-1729, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016732
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wireless Sensors Networks Application in Healthcare and Medical Internet of Things (Miot) in Bio-Medical Sensors Networks)
    Abstract Age estimation in short speech utterances finds many applications in daily life like human-robot interaction, custom call routing, targeted marketing, user-profiling, etc. Despite the comprehensive studies carried out to extract descriptive features, the estimation errors (i.e. years) are still high. In this study, an automatic system is proposed to estimate age in short speech utterances without depending on the text as well as the speaker. Firstly, four groups of features are extracted from each utterance frame using hybrid techniques and methods. After that, 10 statistical functionals are measured for each extracted feature dimension. Then, the extracted feature dimensions are normalized… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Resonator Rectenna Design Based on Metamaterials for Low-RF Energy Harvesting

    Watcharaphon Naktong1, Amnoiy Ruengwaree1,*, Nuchanart Fhafhiem2, Piyaporn Krachodnok3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1731-1750, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015843
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in 5G Antenna Designs and Systems)
    Abstract In this paper, the design of a resonator rectenna, based on metamaterials and capable of harvesting radio-frequency energy at 2.45 GHz to power any low-power devices, is presented. The proposed design uses a simple and inexpensive circuit consisting of a microstrip patch antenna with a mushroom-like electromagnetic band gap (EBG), partially reflective surface (PRS) structure, rectifier circuit, voltage multiplier circuit, and 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi module. The mushroom-like EBG sheet was fabricated on an FR4 substrate surrounding the conventional patch antenna to suppress surface waves so as to enhance the antenna performance. Furthermore, the antenna performance was improved more by utilizing… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    An Optimal Classification Model for Rice Plant Disease Detection

    R. Sowmyalakshmi1, T. Jayasankar1,*, V. Ayyem Pillai2, Kamalraj Subramaniyan3, Irina V. Pustokhina4, Denis A. Pustokhin5, K. Shankar6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1751-1767, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016825
    Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) paves a new direction in the domain of smart farming and precision agriculture. Smart farming is an upgraded version of agriculture which is aimed at improving the cultivation practices and yield to a certain extent. In smart farming, IoT devices are linked among one another with new technologies to improve the agricultural practices. Smart farming makes use of IoT devices and contributes in effective decision making. Rice is the major food source in most of the countries. So, it becomes inevitable to detect rice plant diseases during early stages with the help of automated tools and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on Crowdsourcing Price Game Model in Crowd Sensing

    Weijin Jiang1,2, Xiaoliang Liu1,2,*, Dejia Shi1, Junpeng Chen1,2, Yongxia Sun1,2, Liang Guo3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1769-1784, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016609
    Abstract Crowd-Sensing is an innovative data acquisition method that combines the perception of mobile devices with the idea of crowdsourcing. It is a new application mode under the development of the Internet of Things. The perceptual data that mobile users can provide is limited. Multiple crowdsourcing parties will share this limited data, but the cost that the crowdsourcing party can pay is limited, and enough mobile users are needed to complete the perceptual task, making the group wisdom is really played. In this process, there is bound to be a game between the crowds and the mobile users. Most of the… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    GPS Vector Tracking Loop with Fault Detection and Exclusion

    Dah-Jing Jwo*, Meng-Hsien Hsieh
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1785-1805, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017225
    Abstract In this paper, both the integrity monitoring and fault detection and exclusion (FDE) mechanisms are incorporated into the vector tracking loop (VTL) architecture of the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for reliability enhancement. For the VTL, the tasks of signal tracking and navigation state estimation no longer process separately and a single extended Kalman filter (EKF) is employed to simultaneously track the received signals and estimate the receiver’s position, velocity, etc. In contrast to the scalar tracking loop (STL) which utilizes the independent parallel tracking loop approach, the VTL technique is beneficial from the correlation of each satellite signal and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Mathematical Model Validation of Search Protocols in MP2P Networks

    Ajay Arunachalam1,*, Vinayakumar Ravi2, Moez Krichen3, Roobaea Alroobaea4, Saeed Rubaiee5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1807-1829, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016692
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Management of Security, Privacy and Trust of Multimedia Data in Mobile devices communication)
    Abstract Broadcasting is a basic technique in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), and it refers to sending a packet from one node to every other node within the transmission range. Flooding is a type of broadcast where the received packet is retransmitted once by every node. The naive flooding technique, floods the network with query messages, while the random walk technique operates by contacting the subsets of every node’s neighbors at each step, thereby restricting the search space. One of the key challenges in an ad-hoc network is the resource or content discovery problem which is about locating the queried resource. Many… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    KSUTraffic: A Microscopic Traffic Simulator for Traffic Planning in Smart Cities

    Najla Al-Nabhan*, Maha AlDuhaim, Sarah AlHussan, Haifa Abdullah, Mnira AlHaid, Rawan AlDuhaishi
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1831-1845, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.012231
    Abstract Simulation is a powerful tool for improving, evaluating and analyzing the performance of new and existing systems. Traffic simulators provide tools for studying transportation systems in smart cities as they describe the evolution of traffic to the highest level of detail. There are many types of traffic simulators that allow simulating traffic in modern cities. The most popular traffic simulation approach is the microscopic traffic simulation because of its ability to model traffic in a realistic manner. In many cities of Saudi Arabia, traffic management represents a major challenge as a result of expansion in traffic demands and increasing number… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Quranic Script Optical Text Recognition Using Deep Learning in IoT Systems

    Mahmoud Badry1,*, Mohammed Hassanin1,2, Asghar Chandio2,3, Nour Moustafa2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1847-1858, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015489
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Security and Computing in Internet of Things)
    Abstract Since the worldwide spread of internet-connected devices and rapid advances made in Internet of Things (IoT) systems, much research has been done in using machine learning methods to recognize IoT sensors data. This is particularly the case for optical character recognition of handwritten scripts. Recognizing text in images has several useful applications, including content-based image retrieval, searching and document archiving. The Arabic language is one of the mostly used tongues in the world. However, Arabic text recognition in imagery is still very much in the nascent stage, especially handwritten text. This is mainly due to the language complexities, different writing… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Modelling and Analysis of Bacteria Dependent Infectious Diseases with Variable Contact Rates

    J. B. Shukla1, Shikha Singh2, Jitendra Singh2, Sunil Kumar Sharma3,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1859-1875, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.012095
    Abstract In this research, we proposed a non-linear SIS model to study the effect of variable interaction rates and non-emigrating population of the human habitat on the spread of bacteria-infected diseases. It assumed that the growth of bacteria is logistic with an intrinsic growth rate is a linear function of infectives. In this model, we assume that contact rates between susceptibles and infectives as well as between susceptibles and bacteria depend on the density of the non-emigrating population and the total population of the habitat. The stability theory has been analyzed to analyzed to study the crucial role played by bacteria… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Cogent and Energy Efficient Authentication Protocol for WSN in IoT

    Tariq Mahmood Butt1, Rabia Riaz1, Chinmay Chakraborty2, Sanam Shahla Rizvi3, Anand Paul4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1877-1898, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014966
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Trends in Cyber Security for Communication Networks)
    Abstract Given the accelerating development of Internet of things (IoT), a secure and robust authentication mechanism is urgently required as a critical architectural component. The IoT has improved the quality of everyday life for numerous people in many ways. Owing to the predominantly wireless nature of the IoT, connected devices are more vulnerable to security threats compared to wired networks. User authentication is thus of utmost importance in terms of security on the IoT. Several authentication protocols have been proposed in recent years, but most prior schemes do not provide sufficient security for these wireless networks. To overcome the limitations of… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Utilizing Blockchain Technology to Improve WSN Security for Sensor Data Transmission

    Sung-Jung Hsiao1, Wen-Tsai Sung2,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1899-1918, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015762
    Abstract This paper proposes a method for improving the data security of wireless sensor networks based on blockchain technology. Blockchain technology is applied to data transfer to build a highly secure wireless sensor network. In this network, the relay stations use microcontrollers and embedded devices, and the microcontrollers, such as Raspberry Pi and Arduino Yun, represents mobile databases. The proposed system uses microcontrollers to facilitate the connection of various sensor devices. By adopting blockchain encryption, the security of sensing data can be effectively improved. A blockchain is a concatenated transaction record that is protected by cryptography. Each section contains the encrypted… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Code Smell Detection Using Whale Optimization Algorithm

    Moatasem M. Draz1, Marwa S. Farhan2,3,*, Sarah N. Abdulkader4,5, M. G. Gafar6,7
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1919-1935, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015586
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Computational Intelligence Technologies for Software Engineering: Paradigms, Principles and Applications)
    Abstract Software systems have been employed in many fields as a means to reduce human efforts; consequently, stakeholders are interested in more updates of their capabilities. Code smells arise as one of the obstacles in the software industry. They are characteristics of software source code that indicate a deeper problem in design. These smells appear not only in the design but also in software implementation. Code smells introduce bugs, affect software maintainability, and lead to higher maintenance costs. Uncovering code smells can be formulated as an optimization problem of finding the best detection rules. Although researchers have recommended different techniques to… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Spatial-Resolution Independent Object Detection Framework for Aerial Imagery

    Sidharth Samanta1, Mrutyunjaya Panda1, Somula Ramasubbareddy2, S. Sankar3, Daniel Burgos4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1937-1948, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.014406
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Deep Learning Trends in Intelligent Systems)
    Abstract Earth surveillance through aerial images allows more accurate identification and characterization of objects present on the surface from space and airborne platforms. The progression of deep learning and computer vision methods and the availability of heterogeneous multispectral remote sensing data make the field more fertile for research. With the evolution of optical sensors, aerial images are becoming more precise and larger, which leads to a new kind of problem for object detection algorithms. This paper proposes the “Sliding Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (SRCNN),” which is an extension of the Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (RCNN) object detection framework to make… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Black Hole and Sink Hole Attack Detection in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Rajesh Kumar Dhanaraj1, Lalitha Krishnasamy2, Oana Geman3,*, Diana Roxana Izdrui4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1949-1965, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015363
    Abstract In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) with respect to health care, sensors are positioned inside the body of an individual to transfer sensed data to a central station periodically. The great challenges posed to healthcare WBANs are the black hole and sink hole attacks. Data from deployed sensor nodes are attracted by sink hole or black hole nodes while grabbing the shortest path. Identifying this issue is quite a challenging task as a small variation in medicine intake may result in a severe illness. This work proposes a hybrid detection framework for attacks by applying a Proportional Coinciding Score (PCS)… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Energy Optimised Security against Wormhole Attack in IoT-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Hafsa Shahid1, Humaira Ashraf1, Hafsa Javed1, Mamoona Humayun2, Nz Jhanjhi3,*, Mohammed A. AlZain4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1967-1981, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015259
    Abstract An IoT-based wireless sensor network (WSN) comprises many small sensors to collect the data and share it with the central repositories. These sensors are battery-driven and resource-restrained devices that consume most of the energy in sensing or collecting the data and transmitting it. During data sharing, security is an important concern in such networks as they are prone to many threats, of which the deadliest is the wormhole attack. These attacks are launched without acquiring the vital information of the network and they highly compromise the communication, security, and performance of the network. In the IoT-based network environment, its mitigation… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Enhancement of Sentiment Analysis Using Clause and Discourse Connectives

    Kumari Sheeja Saraswathy, Sobha Lalitha Devi*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 1983-1999, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015661
    Abstract The sentiment of a text depends on the clausal structure of the sentence and the connectives’ discourse arguments. In this work, the clause boundary, discourse argument, and syntactic and semantic information of the sentence are used to assign the text’s sentiment. The clause boundaries identify the span of the text, and the discourse connectives identify the arguments. Since the lexicon-based analysis of traditional sentiment analysis gives the wrong sentiment of the sentence, a deeper-level semantic analysis is required for the correct analysis of sentiments. Hence, in this study, explicit connectives in Malayalam are considered to identify the discourse arguments. A… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimal Selection of Hybrid Renewable Energy System Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Algorithms

    Hegazy Rezk1,2, Irik Z. Mukhametzyanov3, Mujahed Al-Dhaifallah4,*, Hamdy A. Ziedan5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2001-2027, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015895
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Emerging Computational Intelligence Technologies for Software Engineering: Paradigms, Principles and Applications)
    Abstract Several models of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) have identified the optimal alternative electrical energy sources to supply certain load in an isolated region in Al-Minya City, Egypt. The load demand consists of water pumping system with a water desalination unit. Various options containing three different power sources: only DG, PV-B system, and hybrid PV-DG-B, two different sizes of reverse osmosis (RO) units; RO-250 and RO-500, two strategies of energy management; load following (LF) and cycle charging (CC), and two sizes of DG; 5 and 10 kW were taken into account. Eight attributes, including operating cost, renewable fraction, initial cost, the cost… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithm Based on Multipath Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    Haijun Geng1, Qidong Zhang1, Jiangyuan Yao2,*, Wei Wang1, Zikun Jin1, Han Zhang3, Yangyang Zhang4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2029-2039, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016368
    Abstract A reduction in network energy consumption and the establishment of green networks have become key scientific problems in academic and industrial research. Existing energy efficiency schemes are based on a known traffic matrix, and acquiring a real-time traffic matrix in current complex networks is difficult. Therefore, this research investigates how to reduce network energy consumption without a real-time traffic matrix. In particular, this paper proposes an intra-domain energy-efficient routing scheme based on multipath routing. It analyzes the relationship between routing availability and energy-efficient routing and integrates the two mechanisms to satisfy the requirements of availability and energy efficiency. The main… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Gastric Tract Disease Recognition Using Optimized Deep Learning Features

    Zainab Nayyar1, Muhammad Attique Khan1, Musaed Alhussein2, Muhammad Nazir1, Khursheed Aurangzeb2, Yunyoung Nam3,*, Seifedine Kadry4, Syed Irtaza Haider2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2041-2056, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015916
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and IoT based intelligent systems using high performance computing for Medical applications.)
    Abstract Artificial intelligence aids for healthcare have received a great deal of attention. Approximately one million patients with gastrointestinal diseases have been diagnosed via wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE). Early diagnosis facilitates appropriate treatment and saves lives. Deep learning-based techniques have been used to identify gastrointestinal ulcers, bleeding sites, and polyps. However, small lesions may be misclassified. We developed a deep learning-based best-feature method to classify various stomach diseases evident in WCE images. Initially, we use hybrid contrast enhancement to distinguish diseased from normal regions. Then, a pretrained model is fine-tuned, and further training is done via transfer learning. Deep features are… More >

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    ARTICLE

    An Adaptive Anomaly Detection Algorithm Based on CFSFDP

    Weiwu Ren1,*, Xiaoqiang Di1, Zhanwei Du2, Jianping Zhao1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2057-2073, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016678
    Abstract CFSFDP (Clustering by fast search and find of density peak) is a simple and crisp density clustering algorithm. It does not only have the advantages of density clustering algorithm, but also can find the peak of cluster automatically. However, the lack of adaptability makes it difficult to apply in intrusion detection. The new input cannot be updated in time to the existing profiles, and rebuilding profiles would waste a lot of time and computation. Therefore, an adaptive anomaly detection algorithm based on CFSFDP is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the influence of new input on center, edge and discrete… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Transmitter-Receiver Path Selection for Cell Range Extension Using Multi-Hop D2D

    Farah Akif1, Kiran Sultan2,*, Aqdas N. Malik1, Ijaz M. Qureshi3, Saba Mahmood4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2075-2093, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016721
    Abstract Conventional approach of dealing with more users per coverage area in cellular networks implies densifying the amount of (Access Point) AP which will eventually result in a larger carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a base station off-loading and cell range extension (CRE) scheme based on multi-hop device-to-device (MHD2D) path selection between transmitter and receiver node. The paper also provides derivations of upper and lower bounds for energy efficiency, capacity, and transmit power. The proposed path selection scheme is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We present the algorithm as a modified variant of the artificial bee… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Reconfigurable Compact Wideband Circularly Polarised Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Shahid Khan1,*, Xin Cheng Ren2, Haider Ali3, Camel Tanougast1, Abdul Rauf4, Safdar Nawaz Khan Marwat5, Muhammad Rizwan Anjum6
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2095-2109, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016811
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in 5G Antenna Designs and Systems)
    Abstract In this work, a novel compact wideband reconfigurable circularly polarised (CP) dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented. The L-shaped Dielectric resonator antenna is excited by an inverted question mark shaped feed. This arrangement of feed-line helps to generate two orthogonal modes inside the DR, which makes the design circularly polarised. A thin micro-strip line placed on the defected ground plane not only helps to generate a wideband response but also assist in the positioning of the two diode switches. These switches located at the left and right of the micro-strip line helps in performing two switching operations. The novel compact… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Accurate and Computational Efficient Joint Multiple Kronecker Pursuit for Tensor Data Recovery

    Weize Sun1, Peng Zhang1,*, Jingxin Xu2, Huochao Tan3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2111-2126, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016804
    Abstract This paper addresses the problem of tensor completion from limited samplings. Generally speaking, in order to achieve good recovery result, many tensor completion methods employ alternative optimization or minimization with SVD operations, leading to a high computational complexity. In this paper, we aim to propose algorithms with high recovery accuracy and moderate computational complexity. It is shown that the data to be recovered contains structure of Kronecker Tensor decomposition under multiple patterns, and therefore the tensor completion problem becomes a Kronecker rank optimization one, which can be further relaxed into tensor Frobenius-norm minimization with a constraint of a maximum number… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Transmission Control under Multi-Service Disciplines in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Cheng Gong1, Dingbang Xie2, Chao Guo2,*, Sonia Kherbachi3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2127-2143, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016436
    Abstract The wireless sensor network (WSN), as the terminal data acquisition system of the 5G network, has attracted attention due to advantages such as low cost and easy deployment. Its development is mainly restricted by energy. The traditional transmission control scheme is not suitable for WSNs due to the significant information interaction. A switchable transmission control scheme for WSNs based on a queuing game (SQGTC) is proposed to improve network performance. Considering that sensor nodes compete for the resources of sink nodes to realize data transmission, the competitive relationship between nodes is described from the perspective of a game. Different types… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Game-Oriented Security Strategy Against Hotspot Attacks for Internet of Vehicles

    Juan Guo1, Yanzhu Liu2,*, Shan Li3, Zhi Li4, Sonia Kherbachi5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2145-2157, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016411
    Abstract With the rapid development of mobile communication technology, the application of internet of vehicles (IoV) services, such as for information services, driving safety, and traffic efficiency, is growing constantly. For businesses with low transmission delay, high data processing capacity and large storage capacity, by deploying edge computing in the IoV, data processing, encryption and decision-making can be completed at the local end, thus providing real-time and highly reliable communication capability. The roadside unit (RSU), as an important part of edge computing in the IoV, fulfils an important data forwarding function and provides an interactive communication channel for vehicles and server… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Ozone Depletion Identification in Stratosphere Through Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network

    Bakhtawar Aslam1, Ziyad Awadh Alrowaili2, Bushra Khaliq1, Jaweria Manzoor1, Saira Raqeeb1, Fahad Ahmad3,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2159-2178, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015922
    Abstract The concept of classification through deep learning is to build a model that skillfully separates closely-related images dataset into different classes because of diminutive but continuous variations that took place in physical systems over time and effect substantially. This study has made ozone depletion identification through classification using Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network (F-RCNN). The main advantage of F-RCNN is to accumulate the bounding boxes on images to differentiate the depleted and non-depleted regions. Furthermore, image classification’s primary goal is to accurately predict each minutely varied case’s targeted classes in the dataset based on ozone saturation. The permanent changes in… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Power Allocation Strategy for Secret Key Generation Method in Wireless Communications

    Bin Zhang1, Muhammad Waqas2,3, Shanshan Tu2,*, Syed Mudassir Hussain4, Sadaqat Ur Rehman5
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2179-2188, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016553
    Abstract Secret key generation (SKG) is an emerging technology to secure wireless communication from attackers. Therefore, the SKG at the physical layer is an alternate solution over traditional cryptographic methods due to wireless channels’ uncertainty. However, the physical layer secret key generation (PHY-SKG) depends on two fundamental parameters, i.e., coherence time and power allocation. The coherence time for PHY-SKG is not applicable to secure wireless channels. This is because coherence time is for a certain period of time. Thus, legitimate users generate the secret keys (SKs) with a shorter key length in size. Hence, an attacker can quickly get information about… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Intelligent Autonomous-Robot Control for Medical Applications

    Rihem Farkh1,2, Haykel Marouani1,*, Khaled Al Jaloud1, Saad Alhuwaimel3, Mohammad Tabrez Quasim4, Yasser Fouad1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2189-2203, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015906
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence and Healthcare Analytics for COVID-19)
    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that there is a lack of healthcare facilities to cope with a pandemic. This has also underscored the immediate need to rapidly develop hospitals capable of dealing with infectious patients and to rapidly change in supply lines to manufacture the prescription goods (including medicines) that is needed to prevent infection and treatment for infected patients. The COVID-19 has shown the utility of intelligent autonomous robots that assist human efforts to combat a pandemic. The artificial intelligence based on neural networks and deep learning can help to fight COVID-19 in many ways, particularly in the control… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Improved Hybrid Precoding Technique with Low-Resolution for MIMO-OFDM System

    Seulgi Lee1, Ji-Sung Jung1, Young-Hwan You2, Hyoung-Kyu Song1,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2205-2219, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017008
    Abstract This paper proposes an improved hybrid beamforming system based on multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system. The proposed beamforming system improves energy efficiency compared to the conventional hybrid beamforming system. Both sub-connected and full-connected structure are considered to apply the proposed algorithm. In the conventional hybrid beamforming, the usage of radio frequency (RF) chains and phase shifter (PS) gives high power and hardware complexity. In this paper, the phase over sampling (POS) with switches (SW) is used in hybrid beamforming system to improve the energy efficiency. The POS-SW structure samples the value of analog beamformer to make lower… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Real-Time Recognition and Location of Indoor Objects

    Jinxing Niu1,*, Qingsheng Hu1, Yi Niu1, Tao Zhang1, Sunil Kumar Jha2
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2221-2229, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017073
    Abstract Object recognition and location has always been one of the research hotspots in machine vision. It is of great value and significance to the development and application of current service robots, industrial automation, unmanned driving and other fields. In order to realize the real-time recognition and location of indoor scene objects, this article proposes an improved YOLOv3 neural network model, which combines densely connected networks and residual networks to construct a new YOLOv3 backbone network, which is applied to the detection and recognition of objects in indoor scenes. In this article, RealSense D415 RGB-D camera is used to obtain the… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Machine Learning Approach for COVID-19 Detection on Twitter

    Samina Amin1,*, M. Irfan Uddin1, Heyam H. Al-Baity2, M. Ali Zeb1, M. Abrar Khan1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2231-2247, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.016896
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Deep Learning and Parallel Computing for Intelligent and Efficient IoT)
    Abstract Social networking services (SNSs) provide massive data that can be a very influential source of information during pandemic outbreaks. This study shows that social media analysis can be used as a crisis detector (e.g., understanding the sentiment of social media users regarding various pandemic outbreaks). The novel Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19), commonly known as coronavirus, has affected everyone worldwide in 2020. Streaming Twitter data have revealed the status of the COVID-19 outbreak in the most affected regions. This study focuses on identifying COVID-19 patients using tweets without requiring medical records to find the COVID-19 pandemic in Twitter messages (tweets). For this… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Propagation Characterization and Analysis for 5G mmWave Through Field Experiments

    Faizan Qamar1, Mhd Nour Hindia2, Tharek Abd Rahman3, Rosilah Hassan1, Kaharudin Dimyati2, Quang Ngoc Nguyen4,*
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2249-2264, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017198
    Abstract The 5G network has been intensively investigated to realize the ongoing early deployment stage as an effort to match the exponential growth of the number of connected users and their increasing demands for high throughput, bandwidth with Quality of Service (QoS), and low latency. Given that most of the spectrums below 6 GHz are nearly used up, it is not feasible to employ the traditional spectrum, which is currently in use. Therefore, a promising and highly feasible effort to satisfy this insufficient frequency spectrum is to acquire new frequency bands for next-generation mobile communications. Toward this end, the primary effort… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Grey Wolf Optimization Based Tuning of Terminal Sliding Mode Controllers for a Quadrotor

    Rabii Fessi1, Hegazy Rezk2,3,*, Soufiene Bouallègue1,4
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2265-2282, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017237
    Abstract The research on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has intensified considerably thanks to the recent growth in the fields of advanced automatic control, artificial intelligence, and miniaturization. In this paper, a Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm is proposed and successfully applied to tune all effective parameters of Fast Terminal Sliding Mode (FTSM) controllers for a quadrotor UAV. A full control scheme is first established to deal with the coupled and underactuated dynamics of the drone. Controllers for altitude, attitude, and position dynamics become separately designed and tuned. To work around the repetitive and time-consuming trial-error-based procedures, all FTSM controllers’ parameters for… More >

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    ARTICLE

    A Novel Technique for Early Detection of COVID-19

    Mohammad Yamin1,*, Adnan Ahmed Abi Sen2, Zenah Mahmoud AlKubaisy1, Rahaf Almarzouki1
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2283-2298, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017433
    Abstract COVID-19 is a global pandemic disease, which results from a dangerous coronavirus attack, and spreads aggressively through close contacts with infected people and artifacts. So far, there is not any prescribed line of treatment for COVID-19 patients. Measures to control the disease are very limited, partly due to the lack of knowledge about technologies which could be effectively used for early detection and control the disease. Early detection of positive cases is critical in preventing further spread, achieving the herd immunity, and saving lives. Unfortunately, so far we do not have effective toolkits to diagnose very early detection of the… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Verifiable Identity-Based Encryption with Keyword Search for IoT from Lattice

    Lin Mei1, Chungen Xu1,*, Lei Xu1, Xiaoling Yu2, Cong Zuo3
    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 2299-2314, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017216
    Abstract Internet of Things (IoT), which provides the solution of connecting things and devices, has increasingly developed as vital tools to realize intelligent life. Generally, source-limited IoT sensors outsource their data to the cloud, which arises the concerns that the transmission of IoT data is happening without appropriate consideration of the profound security challenges involved. Though encryption technology can guarantee the confidentiality of private data, it hinders the usability of data. Searchable encryption (SE) has been proposed to achieve secure data sharing and searching. However, most of existing SE schemes are designed under conventional hardness assumptions and may be vulnerable to… More >

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